The Past

2,000 - 200 years ago

The disintegration of the Abbasid caliphate after 900 was made complete when the Dailamites, who originated near the southern shores of the Caspian sea and had occupied western Iran by 913, marched into Baghdad in 945 under their leader Ahmed ibn Buwaih. This violent ruler was acknowledged by the ruling Caliph of the day, Mustafki, and given the title 'Muizz al Dowla', 'he who makes the state mighty', though this did not prevent Ahmed ibn Buwaih from dragging the Caliph through the streets of Baghdad and putting his eyes out with a red hot iron.

In 963 Ahmed ibn Buwaih sent an army under Abu Muhammad al-Hasan Al Muhallabi to Julfar in northern Ras al-Khaimah. Al Muhallabi died soon after his arrival, prompting Ahmed ibn Buwaih to himself lead yet another expedition to the region in 965. Having conquered the area and returned to Iraq, the Qarmati from eastern Saudi Arabia then attacked the region, prompting a counter-attack by Ahmed ibn Buwaih in the same year. His powerful nephew Adhud (d. 983) sent additional forces from Siraf in Iran to Julfar in an effort to bring the region once more under Buwayhid control. Troops were again send by Adhud in 972.

There is little of an archaeological nature in the Emirates which reflects the decades of Buwayhid control, but near Husn Madhab in Fujairah are a series of smelting ovens for refining copper which date to approximately the tenth century and strongly resemble contemporary copper-smelting ovens in Iran. It is certainly possible that Persian copper-refining technology - which differed from that used in the Emirates in earlier periods - was introduced at this time into the region as a result of the Buwayhid conquest.

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